Psychoanalysis:

Sigmund Freud was the first to developed the idea of psychoanalysis. Many
physicians at that time turned down Freudís idea, that one could have mental and
physical problems which dwelled from deep with in a person. However, Freud continued
his studies, and has contributed a lot to the world of psychology. Freud has shown the
world that the mind is a powerful tool, and he also proved that physical illness could be a
link to mental thoughts. (Hacker) Since Freudís success in psychology, psychoanalysis
has become a an important topic to psychology.

In the 1890ís, psycholoanalysis developed from a Viennese physician named

Sigmund Freud. (Grolier) Freud, along with his followers used psychoanalysis to branch
off into the world of psychology. The definition of psychoanalysis can best be defined as"emphasizing the roles of unconscious mental forces and conflicts in determining
behavior." (Wood 27) The main branch of psychology is "normal thinking" of the mind.

Freud thought that many of our problems lived inside of our unconsciousness and we
where not aware of this. It is a body of knowledge which sets apart from the traditional
psychology, psychotherapy, and also psychopathology. (Funk & Wagnall Encyclopedia)

In psychology, these deal more with religion, education, mythology, and with life in
general. Freudís idea of psychoanalysis, deals more with the conflict that our minds
encounter. Freud believed in three types of related activities they are; a method of
research into the minds of humans, especially inner experiences which holds our dreams,
fantasies, feelings, thoughts and emotions. Also, a great deal of knowledge of the mind,
and its functions, and a system of treatment of emotional and psychological disorders.
(Grolier)

In Freudís psychoanalysis, Freud believed that all humans were born with
instincts which drives a person to act the way in which they do. There are two
classifications for this they are: the libido, this is based on sexual pleasures, and the
second type is called aggression this motivates the behavior. This type of thinking
happens from the time a person is born, according to Freud. When growing up, the child
will go though three different libidinal stages. The first is called the oral stage, in this
stage the infant takes his or her thumb and stimulates the mouth with it, we may know
this act as the baby sucking his or her thumb. The second stage of libidinal is the anal
stage. In this stage, pleasures like the ones in the oral stage are similar. These pleasures
are repeated through pleasures to the anus. The bowel movements mark this pleasure.

The final stage in the libidinal stages of a child is the phallic stage. This is done when the
child manipulates their genitalia in order for gratification. (Grolier)

Freud thought that a child in the phallic stage, had a strong attraction to the parent
of the opposite sex. He called this Oedipus Complex. (Encarta) Most people throughout
the world turned against this idea of Freuds. which was the attraction to the parent of the
opposite sex. According to Freud, the child is taught to turn against those feelings and
desires which then fall into their unconscious minds. This leads to three defense
mechanisms of the mind in the Freudian theory. The first one is the ID, this is "the
unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and
operates only on the pleasure principle." (Wood 432) The second is known as the Ego,

"in Freudian theory, the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates
according to the reality principle." (Wood 432) The last and final stage in the libido

Freudian theory is the Superego. By definition the Superego can best be defined as "the
moral system of the personality, which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal."
(Wood 432) They according to Freud, all function together.

When the Id, Ego, and Superego clash, a problem can occur. What can happen is
a person can have nightmares or a slip of the tongue can happen. When a traumatic event
takes place, the Id, Ego and Superego become significantly out of balance. If this should
occur, then a psychological disorder is present. The psychological disorder includes:
depression, anxiety, hysteria, and phobias. This is known as psychoneurotic theory.
(Frank)

Hysteria was called the first application of psychoanalytical treatment back then.

Hysteria today is referred to as a conversion disorder. This sickness can intrude on a
completely healthy person. The symptoms include numbness or paralysis of limbs,
blindness or laryngitis. (Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia) In Freudís theory of
psychoanalysis, he believes that this can be caused by fantasies produced by the
unconscious mind.