Programming Languages

A programming language is a set of English-like instructions that includes a set of rules for putting the instructions together to create commands. A translator changes the English-like commands into numeric code that the computer can understand. The most common type of translator is a compiler. The compiler is program that reads English-like commands in a file and than creates another file containing computer readable numeric code or commands. I will be talking about some of the major functions and uses six high-level programming languages.

Java was developed by Sun MicroSystems and released in 1995. Java is based on C and C++ and incorporates many features object-oriented languages. It is a compiled language, but itís code output is interpreted. This makes Java ideal for cross-development. The downside to its interpreted code is speed. Javaís object-oriented is fundamental, and all code and data in a Java program exist within the object-oriented class. Javaís exception handiling with try, catch, and throw statements provide the solution for writing reliable code that responds to all possible error conditions. Another advantage of Java is a String class that does away with null-terminated, length byte and other types of strings. It is also multithreaded which a class can easily provide code that runs concurrently with other programing. Another advantage is the lack of a pointer-type data and memory management which tends to be a very bug-prone area. Memory is organized by Javaís virtual machine garbage collector. Java provides a rich class library in beavery bug-prone area. Memory is organized by Javaís virtual machine garbage collector. Java provides a rich class library in the forms of packages imported into modules. Since Java is interpreted locally on the userís system, a security manager can completely control disk access, window creation, and memory management.

C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labortories in 1972. C was originally designed as symbolic code that formalized programming prasctices used at the time. In 1978 C blossomed into what was to become the most popular programming language ever. C offers programmers three advantages: The first is general pourpose programming which allows you to write games, business software, utilities, mathematical models, wordprocessors, spredsheets, and other kinds of software. The second is structured programming which means it uses structured statements such as while and for loops in place of goto statements that are easily misused. Third is that its a standardized programming language, which is ANSI C, the reconized standard for programming language.

C++ was developed by Bjnarnte Strounstrip in the early 80ís at Bell Labortories. It is an object-oriented programming language which contains three elements: First is encapsulation which extends the capacity of modularity. Second is polymorphism which is the use of a name or symbol. Third is inheritance which allows the designer to take existing objects and create new ones that inherit the properties of an earlier object. Objects are created in C++ through the mechanism of the class which is a data type similar to the C structure. However it differs from the C structure in many important ways. The most important is that it not only contains varible numbers, but also function numbers which are the methods that act on the varible numbers. C++ class also contains two basic sections, a private section and a public section. A private sectons is parts of a class that are available to member functions but that cannot be accessed from outside the function. A public section defines the interface between the class object and the rest of the program. The class data type is the focus of C++, everyting in the language revolves around this user-defined data type. C++ is a evolutionary step up from C, much of itís syntax is identical to that of C. Some of the basic features and syntax that are shared by both are The Main( ) function, the use of function arguments,arithmetic and logical operators, control and looping statement,

Bit wise communication, and basic data types.

Visual basic evolved from BASIC. It was created by Microsoft Corporation in 1991. Visual basic is an example of a graphical-based language which allows the user to directly work with graphics. It is created in an Integrated Development Enviorment (IDE). IDE allows the programmer to run, debug, and create Visual basic programs convienietly. It also allows programmers to