Lincolnís Journey to Emancipation

He comes to us in the mists of legend as a kind of homespun Socrates, brimming with
prarie wit and folk wisdom. There is a counterlegend of Lincoln, one shared ironically
enough by many white Southerners and certain black Americans of our time. Neither of
these views, of course, reveals much about the man who really lived--legend and political
interpretations seldom do.

As a man, Lincoln was complex, many-sided, and richly human. He was an
intense, brooding person, he was plagued with chronic depression most of his life. At the
time he even doubted his ability to please or even care about his wife. Lincoln remained a
moody, melancholy man, given to long introspection about things like death and mortality.

Preoccupied with death, he was also afraid to insanity. Lincoln was a teetotaler because
liquor left him "flabby and undone", blurring his mind and threatening his self-control.

One side of Lincoln was always Supremely logical and analytical, he was intrigued by the
clarity of mathematics. As a self-made man, Lincoln felt embarrassed about his log-cabin
origins and never liked to talk about them. By the 1850s, Lincoln was one of the most
sought after attorney in Illinois, with a reputation as a lawyerís lawyer. Though a man of
status and influence, Lincoln was as honest in real life as in legend. Politically, Lincoln
was always a nationalist in outlook , an outlook that began when he was an Indiana farm
boy tilling his farther mundane wheat field.

Lincoln always maintained that he had always hated human bondage, as much as
any abolitionist. He realized how wrong it was that slavery should exist at all in a
self-proclaimed free Republic. He opposed slavery, too, because he had witnessed some
of itís evils firsthand. What could be done? So went Lincolnís argument before 1854. To
solve the ensuing problem of racial adjustment, Lincoln insisted that the federal
government should colonize all blacks in Africa, an idea he got from his political idol,

Whig national leader Henry Clay.

Then came 1854 and the momentous Kansas-Nebraska Act , brainchild of

Lincolnís archrival Stephen A. Douglas. At once a storm of free-soil protest broke across
the North, and scores of political leaders branded the Kansas-Nebraska Act as part of a
sinister Southern plot to extend slavery and augment Southern political power in

Washington. The train of ominous events from Kansas-Nebraska to Dred Scott shook

Lincoln to his foundations. Lincoln waded into the middle of the antiextension fight. By

1858, Lincoln, like a lot of other Republicans, began to see a grim proslavery conspiracy
at work in the United States. The next step in the conspiracy would be to nationalize
slavery: the Taney Court, Lincoln feared, would hand down another decision, one
declaring that states could not prohibit slavery. For Lincoln and his Republican
colleagues, it was imperative that the conspiracy be blocked in its initial stage - the
expansion of slavery into the West. Douglas fighting for his political life in free-soil

Illinois, lashed back at Lincoln with unadulterated racebaiting. Forced to take a stand
against Douglas ruin him with his allegations, Lincoln conceded that he was not for Negro
political or social equality. Exasperated with Douglas and white Negrophobia in general,

Lincoln begged American whites "to discard all this quibbling about this man and the other
man---this race and that race and the other race as being inferior. Lincoln lost the 1857

Senate contest to Douglas. Yet for the benefit of the Southerners, he repeated that he and
his party would nor hurt slavery in the South. But Southerns refused to believe anything

Lincoln said.

At the outset of the war, Lincoln strove to be consistent with all that he and his
party had said about slavery: his purpose in the struggle was strictly to save the Union.

There were other reasons for Lincolnís hands-off policy about slavery. He was also
waging a bipartisan war effort, with Northern Democrats and Republicans alike enlisting
in his armies to save the Union. But the pressures and problems of civil war caused

Lincoln to change his mind and abandon his hands policy about slavery and hurl an
executive fist at slavery in the rebel states. Sumner, Lincolnís personal friend was
especially persistent in advocating the freeing of the slaves. Sumner, as a major Lincoln
adviser on foreign affairs, also linked emancipation to foreign policy. Black and White
abolitionists belabored that point too. The pressure on Lincoln to strike at slavery was
unrelenting. On that score slaves themselves were contributing to the pressures on

Lincoln to emancipate them. Lincoln however stubbornly rejected a presidential