In past centuries, Angola was among the areas most
This essay In past centuries, Angola was among the areas most has a total of 1222 words and 7 pages.
In past centuries, Angola was among the areas most-devastated by the slave trade. In recent decades, it has been afflicted with wars. However, in both eras, much of the violence was driven by powerful external forces. This is because Angola, with an abundance of oil and other resources, could develop into a very prosperous country if led and controlled by the right power. In 1975 Angola was released from colonialism by Portugal. This pivotal event in history sparked the beginning of a massive conflict between many of the key players in world power. These key players included the United States, Cuba, China, and the Soviet Union.
After reading three separate accounts of the crisis in Angola (U.S. Senate hearings led by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, a personal memoir by 1975 Assistant Secretary of State Nathaniel Davis, and a biography entitled In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story by John Stockwell), I have come to several conclusions. Although these three men all held important positions in the U.S. government, multiple contradictions exist in their chronologies of events. Of the discrepancies I found, all of them put Stockwell in opposition with Kissinger and Davis. I believe this is due to his position in the Central Intelligence Agency, where the greater availability of information was his advantage. Moreover, since all three accounts agree that the U.S. involvement was essentially a covert operation led by the CIA, I feel the account written by Stockwell was the most valid of the three.
When looking at the differences in chronologies, it is necessary to start from the beginning of the conflict. The first difference I found dealt with CIA involvement in Angola. Stockwell, "an experienced, senior CIA case officer" (Stockwell, 31), marked early July 1974 as the start of CIA support.
In July 1974 the CIA began funding Roberto without 40 committee
approval, small amounts at first, but enough for word to get around
that the CIA was dealing itself into the race...During the fall of 1974
the CIA continued to fund Roberto, still without 40 committee
approval... (Stockwell, 67).
However, Davis describes that covert support did not begin until much later.
Shortly thereafter (his appointment on March 11, 1975), William
G. Hyland, the director of the State Departmentís Bureau of
Intelligence and Research, told me that a $300,000 program of
covert support for the veteran Angolan liberation fighter, Holden
Roberto, had been approved that past January by the Forty
Committee... (Davis, 110).
Kissinger also noted this $300,000, which was given to Holden Roberto, was the first U.S. aid to Angola.
...We did not feel that our national interest was sufficiently
involved in the struggle within Angola...therefore, we only
made a grant of $300,000 which, at most, will get bicycles,
office equipment, and aid political efforts of the FNLA... (Angola, 26).
This contradiction is most-likely due to the differences in position between the three men. Stockwell was an important CIA official and had access to more classified information at an earlier time.
The second inconsistency I found dealt with the U.S. military support in Angola. Stockwell insisted throughout his book that the U.S. was spending millions of dollars on arms for the conflict.
...8 million, released on July 27, was allocated primarily for
the shipload of arms and for the procurement of airplanes
to haul material from Kinshasa into Angola...On August 20,
an additional 10.7 million was authorized for more arms,
aircraft, mercenaries, and maintenance of the liberation
forces, (Stockwell, 206).
Stockwell also reported that by December 1975 the CIA was still lying to Congress about arms and advisors in Angola. At this time, Kissinger was not reporting anything remotely close to a U.S. arms build-up. In fact, he suggested that a military-type involvement was out of the question.
Angola is an African problem and should be left to
Africans to solve; foreign military involvement only
escalates and prolongs the warfare there... (Angola, 10).
In comparison, Davis spoke of a similar American view on foreign military involvement in a memo he submitted to the State Department representative of the Forty Committee.
...Covert intervention (military) would not serve larger
U.S. interests...an attempted intervention could not be
kept secret...a covert intervention would have to be so
circumscribed as to fall between stools in any case-while
the other side could escalate at will, (Davis, 113).
Again, due to the availability of classified CIA information, Stockwell knew of massive U.S. military support while Kissinger and Davis were unaware and noted it to be an irrational decision.
The last contradiction I noted
Topics Related to In past centuries, Angola was among the areas most
Africa, Politics of Angola, Politics, Military history of Angola, Angolan Civil War, Blood diamonds, Cold War conflicts, Nathaniel Davis, UNITA, John Stockwell, Henry Kissinger, Central Intelligence Agency
Essays Related to In past centuries, Angola was among the areas most
Lincolnís Journey to EmancipationLincolnís Journey to Emancipation He comes to us in the mists of legend as a kind of homespun Socrates, brimming with prarie wit and folk wisdom. There is a counterlegend of Lincoln, one shared ironically enough by many white Southerners and certain black Americans of our time. Neither of these views, of course, reveals much about the man who really lived--legend and political interpretations seldom do. As a man, Lincoln was complex, many-sided, and richly human. He was an intense, brooding pers
Introduction The Allied invasion of France on JuneIntroduction The Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944 is variously known as D-Day, the Longest Day, Cross-Channel Attack, and probably some others as well. It was the largest single military operation of World War II. Hence, the Normandy beaches are a must stop if you get anywhere close to France. The 50th anniversary celebration in 1994 generated a lot of hype. The recent movie Saving Private Ryan rekindled that interest. However, the landing always held a special niche going back to the e
Slave LifeSlave Life The warm climate, boundless fields of fertile soil, long growing seasons, and numerous waterways provided favorable conditions for farming plantations in the South (Foster). The richness of the South depended on the productivity of the plantations (Katz 3-5). With the invention of the cotton gin, expansion of the country occurred. This called for the spread of slavery (Foster). Slaves, owned by one in four families, were controlled from birth to death by their white owners. Black men,
BOOKREPORTBOOKREPORT by Maximilian Schreder Malcolm X The Autobiography as told to Alex Haley Introduction When Malcolm X was murdered in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem on February 21, 1965, he was world-famous as the angriest black man in America. By that time he had completed his autobiography, so we have now the opportunity to get information of this both hated and loved Afro-American leaderís life at first hand. The book The Autobiography of Malcolm X, which he wrote with the assistance of Alex Haley,
The following was a submitted report for a U.S. HiThe following was a submitted report for a U.S. History research paper assignment We fight our country\'s battles in the air, on land and sea. First to fight for right and freedom, and to keep our honor clean; We are proud to claim the title of United States Marine. Our flag\'s unfurled to every breeze from dawn to setting sun. We have fought in every clime and place, where we could take a gun. In the snow of far off northern lands and in sunny tropic scenes, You will find us always on the job,
Nicholas A. TrifilettiNicholas A. Trifiletti Ideas in the Visual Arts I9 1:00 MWF The Songye Masquerade INTRODUCTION When I again entered the Nelson-Atkins Art Museum, I immediately asked the security guards where the African collection was located. I passed through the Chinese and Japanese galleries but nothing drew my attention more than the African mystique. As I entered the room a distinct smell came across my noise, one that suggested undiscovered grounds. This is an art criticism paper, in which I will describe
Oskar KokoschkaOskar Kokoschka Kokoschka was born in Pchlarn, a Danube town, on March 1, 1886. He studied at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts from 1905 to 1908. As an early exponent of the avant-garde expressionist movement, he began to paint psychologically penetrating portraits of Viennese physicians, architects, and artists. Among these works are Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze-Conrat (1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), August Forel (1910, Mannheim Art Gallery, Germany), and Self-Portrait (1913,
The gap between rich and poor in the world today.The gap between rich and poor in the world today. In the world of 1995, there are still huge differeces between rich and poor, developed and less developed countries. But why? Who is to blame? What can we do about it? Many things have been tried out to solve these problems, but does it work? It seems bizarre, that we, modern, intelligent people, have not yet succeded to get rid of the differences between DCs (developed countries) and LDCs (less developed countries). We try, don\'t we? Every year
Malcolm X, a civil rights leader in the 1960's belMalcolm X, a civil rights leader in the 1960\'s believed that blacks and whites should be segregated. He also believed that white man was evil and were trying to brainwash all blacks and that Martin Luther King\'s non-violent protests weren\'t working and that violence was needed for change. Malcolm X\'s life was a life with a lot of conflict and violence in it. Malcolm X was born under the name of Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska in 1925. His father was a baptist minister and an outspoken foll
Mohandus Karamchand GandhiMohandus Karamchand Gandhi Mohandus Karamchand Gandhi was a major figure in Indian history. He was best known for his policy of passive resistance and civil disobedience against unjust laws set by the British government. He inspired other nonviolent movements notably the U.S. civil right movement of the 1950ís and 1960ís lead by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (Encarta 98). Gandhi was highly influential, some say responsible, for Indiaís gain of independence and the abolishment of untouchability, th
There are some things which cannot be learnedThere are some things which cannot be learned quickly, and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their acquiring. They are the simplest things, and because it takes a manís life to know them, the little now that each man gets from life, is very costly and the only heritage he has to leave. Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Papa Hemingway Ernest Hemingway is easily reconized by many scholars and outdoorsman because of his lifestyle. During his life he left a legacy for some and a
The major conflict in the novel, Cry the Beloved CThe major conflict in the novel, Cry the Beloved Country, is an inner uncertainty within the characters. The author, Alan Paton, shows this inner conflict from two perspectives; the Europeans and the Native South Africans. These two groups also have inconsistencies in their conscious to resolve. The black Natives are struggling between tradition and the new world. The Natives are forfeiting their old values as they progress towards the mode of the big city life. The Europeans are also confused.
FRIDAYFRIDAY A handsome, in about 26 years old, with straight and strong limbs, tall and well shaped fellow who bare name Friday which he got for the memory of a day he was rescued. The native who was saved from a certain death by Robinson Crusoe during one of the cannibal rituals of a local tribe. By the man who was actually on his way to Africa to buy Negroes! His hair was long and black but not curled, he had very high forehead and great sparkling sharp eyes. Fridayís appearance was somewhere in be
Next Of KinNext Of Kin The next of kin a documentation of mind matter and love. This book was very inspirational it gives you a whole new outlook on the experience and the feelings of animals. Trying to relate with how much Roger Fouts has accomplished in his life is unbearable he has had so many experiences that have been recorded in this book. It was the type of book that was hard to put down from the beginning. In the next few pages I will discuss parts of the book that really moved me and left an impre
Heart of darknessHeart of darkness Joseph Conrad In Joseph Conrad\'s Heart of Darkness, there is a great interpretation of the feelings of the characters and uncertainties of the Congo. Although Africa, nor the Congo are ever really referred to, the Thames river is mentioned as support. This intricate story reveals much symbolism due to Conrad\'s theme based on the lies and good and evil, which interact together in every man. Today, of course, the situation has changed. Most literate people know that by probing
Non-Fiction Book ReportNon-Fiction Book Report The book Ernest Hemingway and his world was written by Anthony Burgess and it was published in 1978 by Charles Scribners Sons. Its main concept is about the life of Ernest Hemingway and how he differed from his fellow writers in being a very strong man of action. There are many settings in the book because Ernest Hemingway was a man who traveled all his life to all of the United States, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, and several other places. The author describes what Hem
Components of the Marketing PlanComponents of the Marketing Plan I. Situation Analysis: Where are we now? A. Historical Background The coffee tree is native to Ethiopia. From there it spread throughout the Middle East. Until the 17th Century all the coffee of commerce came from Arabia. Slowly, the efforts of Dutch merchants spread cultivation to the East Indies. Coffee cultivation began in the Americas in the early 1700ís. Most of the coffee trees of the Western Hemisphere are said to be descended from a single plant. It was c
IntroductionIntroduction In order to stay competitive, businesses have to be the best at what they do. Companyís must be efficient and presise in all aspects of the job. (Metcalfe 1). ISO 9000 is made up of managementís responsibility, the producers involved in the Quality Management System, the contract review, the design control, document and data control, purchasing, process control, inspection and testing, control of non-conforming product, corrective action, handling, storage, packaging and delivery, i
BUSINESS COURSE ASSIGNMENTBUSINESS COURSE ASSIGNMENT FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF A CAR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY Location: Sao Paulo in Brazil Sao Paulo is a perfect location for a car manufacturing industry. It is situated on the coast of Brazil, and is near by to local resources. The many reasons to why I have chosen Sao Paulo and why it is suitable for a car Manufacturing site are: 1. There is good access to large amounts of cheap land 2. There is access to cheap labour; Mexican immigrants and local Brazilians 3. Near
The CompanyThe Company The East India Company is a modern, dynamic commercial enterprise with a wealth of experience and contacts, and associates throughout the world. Founded by the Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth the First in 1600, The East India Company was once the single most powerful economic force that the world has ever seen. Based in London, its influence reached out to all continents, and the consequences of its actions, both great and small, are the very fabric of history itself -- the Company,
Eastern DjiboutiEastern Djibouti The country of Eastern Djibouti is located in eastern sub-Saharan Africa near the countries of Ethiopia and Sudan. The government of this nation takes after that of World War II Italy in that it is a fascist dictatorship. Eastern Djibouti is led by the militaryís top official, General Ryan Schutte. The economic situation in this country is bleak. Large businesses bribe the corrupt government in order to keep their share of the market. There are only two classes of people in this
The book Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton isThe book Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton is a book about agitation and turmoil of both whites and blacks over the white segregation policy called apartheid. The book describes how understanding between whites and blacks can end mutual fear and aggresion, and bring reform and hope to a small community of Ndotcheni as well as to South Africa as a whole. The language of the book reflects the Bible; furthermore, several characters and episodes are reminiscent of stories from the New Testament
It is often said that when considering a work of gIt is often said that when considering a work of great literature, the title of such work can be just as important as the context of the story. Authors time and again wait until they have completed the context of their work to give it a title as to make sure this chosen title is the best possible representation of their work. Stated equally as often is that the significance of some of these titles is easy to recognize while in other titles, the significance is only developed gradually. The latte
One theme present in Ernest Hemingway's short storOne theme present in Ernest Hemingway\'s short story, The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, is that the way a person views his life can change completely in one fulfilling moment, if only for an instant. This is a story of a man\'s continuous display of cowardice, his wife\'s retaliatory love affair, and his recovery of integrity and pride as he bravely faces a charging buffalo. Francis Macomber is a prominent American businessman with a beautiful, dominating wife who holds the control and p
United NationsUnited Nations During the First World War several world leaders such as President of the United States(U.S.) Woodrow Wilson and South African Prime Minster Jan Smuts, advocated the need for an international organization that preserved peace and settled disputes by arbitration. When peace negotiations began in October 1918,United States president Woodrow Wilson insisted that his Fourteen Points serve as a basis for the signing of the Armistice . The Armistice included the formation of the League
CleopatraCleopatra Cleopatra was queen of Egypt, last ruler of the dynasty founded by Ptolemy, a Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who took Egypt as his share in dividing Alexanderís empire. Her capital, Alexander, founded by Alexander the Great, was the center of Hellenistic Greek culture of the world at that time, as well as a great commercial center. Although she imagined as a beautiful and glamorous woman today, she was not very attractively depicted on ancient coins, having a long hook nos
Jonathan N. DukesJonathan N. Dukes December 1, 1999 Health / 6th Period Ms. J Thesis: The AIDS and HIV viruses are getting worse in the United States and the rest of the world. Introduction Although more people die of heart disease and cancer each year, AIDS has become the health problem people fear the most. Much of the fear comes from ignorance and misunderstanding. Education is the most effective tool against AIDS. It is more important than ever for young people to learn the facts about AIDS. Many teenagers d
Bibliography: This is my first Biology paper. My mBibliography: This is my first Biology paper. My major is Psychology. I attend an university in Maryland part-time. I am a college Sophomore. I work in Communications. UNDERSTANDING THE AIDS VIRUS Will I live to see tomorrow? Is there a hope for the future? These are probably the most commonly asked questions among AIDS patients today. This paper delves into the heart of the AIDS topic by giving a detailed definition of the virus, risk factors associated with transmission, and the best treatment
Introduction:Introduction: AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I\'ve already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently is neither a cure, nor
You are the owner of a large ship. You sail aroundYou are the owner of a large ship. You sail around the world and trade goods with other countries. A French investor has agreed to pay for your next trip if you can bring back a profit and, hopefully, goods that he can sell to local merchants. If for any reason you do not return with a profit, he has the right to back out of the deal, and you\'ll be stuck paying for everything. Before you sail from your homeport in Lisbon, Portugal, you will need to make several important decisions about how to
Religions Spread Through ConquestReligions Spread Through Conquest When studying history, both in a professional and academic sense, we try to make connections between civilizations and time periods. Historians have attempted to discover universal constants of human nature, a bond that forms from continent to continent, human being to human being. Is there a constant quality that all peoples posses, and is reflected in all civilizations? Indeed, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about centuries of modern history
Begun as a war between South Korea (Republic of KoBegun as a war between South Korea (Republic of Korea) and North Korea (Democratic People\'s Republic of Korea), after the North\'s invasion of the South, the conflict swiftly developed into a limited international war involving the U.S. and 19 other nations. From a general viewpoint, the Korean War was one of the by-products of the cold war, the global political and diplomatic struggle between the Communist and non-Communist systems following World War II. The motives behind North Korea\'s deci
David Livingstone Ė Man of Prayer and ActionDavid Livingstone Ė Man of Prayer and Action Author: C. Silvester Horne, M.P. David Livingstone was a faithful pioneer missionary whose greatest desire was granted only after his death Ė the stopping of the slave trade and opening up Africa to Christianity and lawful commerce. Livingstone was born on March 19th, 1813 at Blantyre, Lankshire. He was raised in a pious but poverty stricken home in Scotland. By the age on 9, he had already memorized Psalm 119 and won a copy of the New Testament as a
In this book report I read the book D-Day and tellIn this book report I read the book D-Day and tells u about the time before and the grueling battles that led up to the most memorable and most important day of this century, June 6, 1944, that was D-Day. Also I will mention key points and describe to you what intricate planning and grueling strategy that out smarted the German forces. What really decided the outcome of the war was determined by three things the number of allies, the number of soldiers that where positioned right so that they co
Franklin D. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New YFranklin D. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882. He was the son of James Roosevelt and Sara Delano Roosevelt. His parents and private tutors provided him with almost all his education. At a young age, he became interested in birds. For his eleventh birthday, he asked his parents for a gun to began a collection of all the birds that were native to Dutchess County. By the time he entered college, he had collected and identified about 300 different kinds of birds. Today, h
NationalismNationalism The rise of nationalism was very important in Africa. The national patricians and the establishment during colonial times meant the lose of their gained power and influences all which had had until now. The status quo until now meant had supported the colonial powers to change the economy, culture and the way of life for Africans. Of course, Africans never accepted colonial rule and destruction of their customs. Paradoxically, colonialism resulted in an awareness of consciousness amo
Colonialism in NigeriaColonialism in Nigeria The earliest known documentation of Nigeria is that it was the sight of a group of organized states called Hausa. The earliest Nigerians were the Nok people. These Noks were skilled artisans, but they didnít last long. The Noks had disappeared by the second millennium. The Southwest region of Lake Chad, Africa was ruled by the Kanem-Bornu during the 8th century. By the 1300ís, the empire of Kanem-Bornu was a flourishing center of Islamic culture, rivaling Mali in the west.
African Dimensions of the Stono RebellionAfrican Dimensions of the Stono Rebellion When studying the Stono Rebellion of 1739, historians only had one eyewitness report of this. I think the reason they didnít document it very well was because the Southerners were so outnumbered by the slaves, they didnít want the other slaves to get ideas of rebellion. The historians also failed to look at the big picture. What they were in Africa. This played a big role in the Stono Rebellion. To understand the full role of Africa, one has to look at t
Rome, History of. The accounts of the regal periodRome, History of. The accounts of the regal period have come down overlaid with such a mass of myth and legend that few can be verified; Roman historians of later times, lacking authentic records, relied on fabrications of a patriotic nature. Following this period, when a republic was established, Rome became a world power and emerged as an empire with extensive boundaries. The Legendary Period of the Kings (753-510 BC) Rome was said to have been founded by Latin colonists from Alba Longa, a nea
Jhonan MercadoJhonan Mercado Women Studies 187 Lisa D. Robinson Question #3 March 28, 1997 Slavery in America The enslavement of the Black man was not the first time slavery existed in history. According to history, another group of people that were enslaved were the Israelites in Egypt. However, no slavery, even that of the Israelites, in history was worse than the slavery of the Black man. The slavery of the Black man in America was the cruelest ever known to man. Europeans transported slaves from Africa as
AmistadAmistad Amistad is a movie about a struggle and freedom. The character of man-Amistad, captured viewer and made them realize a painful and brutal past that they could not escape. The word amistad comes from a word meaning friendship, and this movie is far from being based on friendship, which is why it is quite ironic that they chose this for a title. The opening scene portraying an open desperate ocean, a smooth drum beat, and an exhausted slave. The film in its entirety expresses a brutally vi
Jaclyn ParkerJaclyn Parker Amistad book review Topics in U.S. History 1 Prof. Davidson March 25, 1998 The novel Amistad is one that discusses a group of slaves that were originally transported from Africa by Spanish traders employed by Queen Isabella II. These traders, however, claimed that these slaves came from Havanna, Cuba. The book reveals that these slaves were not unaccustomed to slavery in their own country. Cinque said at one point that there were some people who were enslaved because of debts or ot
In past centuries, Angola was among the areas mostIn past centuries, Angola was among the areas most-devastated by the slave trade. In recent decades, it has been afflicted with wars. However, in both eras, much of the violence was driven by powerful external forces. This is because Angola, with an abundance of oil and other resources, could develop into a very prosperous country if led and controlled by the right power. In 1975 Angola was released from colonialism by Portugal. This pivotal event in history sparked the beginning of a massive co
A Journey Though the Golden Gates of PromiseA Journey Though the Golden Gates of Promise Great controversy exists over the true promises of the Golden Gates in the United States. Discrimination occurs with different ethnic groups, but for those immigrants permitted into the country, the opportunities are excellent. The laws and practices established to control immigration into the United States limit the amount of poverty that can be present in the country. Without these important practices and laws created by the United States Congre
Jessica HagenJessica Hagen Ethno-Film Study The Boer War The Boer War was the struggle of the Boers, or Dutch descent farmers, to keep the power of their land away from the British. They wanted to control their own land, and they were not going to let the British have an easy take over. The Boer War is also known as the South African War, and was fought from 1899 to 1902 (World 435). The British learned of resources they could use in the African area and there was a major struggle over who would control the
The European colonies in the Americas were built uThe European colonies in the Americas were built upon the backs of the African slaves whose unpaid labor produced immense capital for Atlantic economies. Taken from their African homelands and thrust into the Americas, Black slaves labored under the hot Western sun to produce cash crops to add to the coffers of others. The slaves had no economic incentive to produce for their masters. To provide the necessary motivation, the slave masters relied above all on violence to coerce their slaves into
THE BUBONIC PLAGUETHE BUBONIC PLAGUE Introduction Plague, was a term that was applied in the Middle Ages to all fatal epidemic diseases, but now it is only applied to an acute, infectious, contagious disease of rodents and humans, caused by a short, thin, gram-negative bacillus. In humans, plague occurs in three forms: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicemic plague. The best known form is the bubonic plague and it is named after buboes, or enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes, which are characteristics of the
Thomas Jefferson on SlaveryThomas Jefferson on Slavery We Hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness(Jefferson). These words are arguably the most recognized words ever written in American history and are the backbone of our countries right to freedom. Thomas Jefferson, the author of The Declaration of Independence, is one of the few historical American leade
The Tuskegee AirmanThe Tuskegee Airman For my term paper I chose the Tuskegee Airman. They will alway be the most influential air squadron during WWII. I think this because there where a lot racist people that did not want them to succeed, but they did more than just succeed. They became the first black Airforce pilots. It all started when President Roosevelt arranged a meeting in September 1940 with three African-American leaders and members of the Army and Navy. During the meeting, the leaders emphasized three p
Sun Microsystems, Inc.Sun Microsystems, Inc. Introduction By 1998 Sun had become a global Fortune 500 leader in enterprise network computing with operations in 150 countries and generating $8 billion in revenues. Sunís competitors in the technical markets were primarily Intel, Hewlett-Packard (HP), International Business Machine (IBM), Compaq Computer Corporation (CPQ) and Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI). The information technology industry, the market for Sunís services and products, was extremely competitive in 1998.